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Which Programming Language Should I Learn Next?

Fairly often I see people asking in online communities “which programming language should I learn next?” I have asked this question often recently. I want to learn something new. I always enjoy learning new things. It’s what I do. I’m a scientist, and my current occupation (what I put on forms) is “student,” but I think of myself as a student in a much more holistic way. I always enjoy learning and I seek it out on a moment-to-moment basis. Programming is a large part of what I do: in a way, it’s also been my “occupation” for at least the past five years. I programmed in Stata for my job before I came to graduate school and now I use C, Scheme, bash, Emacs Lisp and a few other “languages” every day.

I feel like I reached a plateau of sorts a couple of years ago, after studying languages at a rate of about two per month for at least two years. By that I mean I studied Emacs Lisp and Python for a month, then things seemed to shift to Scheme and R, or Perl and Common Lisp for the next month. I think I intensely studied about ten languages over three years, including various Unix shells and a few specialty languages (like Mathematica: yuck!) . There’s still a whole bunch that I would say I’m conversant in, and some even that I use as a fairly essential part of my work, that I might be able to use better if I knew them better, like TeX. As my graduate school research picked up, however, I settled on C and Scheme as my main languages.

I found this plateau somewhat dismaying: as I said I always want to learn new things, and there seem to be really cool languages out there that I could learn. For about two years I’ve been casually reading about, and doing minor coding in the ML family and Haskell. However in each case I’ve found that there are reasons I shouldn’t bother. Here are my conclusions:

  1. My needs as a programmer are different from the vast majority of people who put the title of this posting into Google
  2. Most programs people want to write are quite different from the ones that I want to write
  3. I really like the Unix workflow

Other Programmers Learn For Jobs

The most common answer I see to “What programming language…?” is “You should know C, C++, Lisp, Python, Javascript,…so that when you go to your interview…” That’s when I stop reading. The authors assume (and often rightly so) that I’m asking because I’m looking for a job. I’m not, as it turns out, but I’m sure a lot of other people are. I’m a scientist, I have a job (in a way), and I wouldn’t wish a corporate job on my worst enemy. As I said, I had a job that had a large programming component, but the interviewers didn’t really care that I didn’t have experience specifically with that language (Stata). What they cared about was whether I was good at learning. In my mind that should always be more important and I will always hold these people in high esteem for doing things that way. I remember the person who became my closest colleague interviewing me and saying “Stata’s pretty easy, it has a very simple syntax, you should be able to pick it up pretty fast.” He was right.

In my discussion of object-oriented programming I got the comment quite often that “You need to know object-oriented programming because it controls complexity, and is therefore essential in corporate programming environments, so if you want a job…” End of discussion. Don’t believe the hype. If you want such a job, then by all means, learn Java. If you’re more like me, and you realize that programming is not the hardest part of most jobs then focus on those other parts, and get good at using whichever programming paradigm is most well-suited to the task at hand. Don’t obsess about which programming paradigm is most suited to having people fire you easily.

Other Programmers Write Monolithic, Interactive Programs

The programming task that I’m most often using is numerical analysis, the oldest programming task in the universe — the one that pre-dates computers. I conclude that the source of my confusion with many programming texts and the explanations given is that other programmers are interested in (or at least authors are trying to interest them in) designing large, monolithic, interactive programs. In my mind there are only a few good examples of such programs, and they are already written: Emacs, the shell, window managers and file managers, and a web-browser (which is really a noninteractive program dressed up as an interactive one). I’m not going to write one of those. Seems to me like most people learning Haskell, for example, are coming from writing monolithic programs in C++ or Java, and probably on Microsoft Windows.

What’s particularly funny to me about this is that this split goes back a few decades to the “Worse is better” controversy of the early nineties. Unix’ detractors generally believed in writing monolithic programs and their favorite development environments were eclipsed by Unix and the hardware it came with (workstations). I guess Microsoft and Apple were able to steer people away from Unix once again; now people come from environments where they are used to building these monolithic programs to Unix-like systems, and they don’t find out they can use computers a particular way. I started using Unix when I was thirteen: I guess this means I’m old. I’d rather be an old Unix-user than a young anything.

There are a few other reasons I’m not writing such big programs: an interactive environment for numerical operations only makes sense up to a point. It’s great for experimenting. However, even in Stata I ended up writing scripts, in a programmatic style, and executing them in batch mode, carefully writing the important results to output, and saving graphs as files. Either those programs have been written and are awesome, or I don’t need monolithic, interactive programs to do the things I’m doing. I have a different perspective on how people should use computers.

Unix Philosophy Works For Me

I often read that the Unix philosophy became “Do one thing and do it well.” Other people seem to want to start a program, work with just that program for a long time, and then do something else using a different huge, monolithic program. I think that’s a waste of time. It sounds extremely limiting. Especially when I have a whole bunch of tools available to integrate my work into a common whole. I often read the derisive aphorism “When all you’ve got is a hammer, everything starts to look like a nail.” I think the supposed wisdom of that remark is placed elsewhere, but it has the opposite meaning when speaking about using Unix tools. Yes, when you have Make, everything starts to look like targets and dependencies. When you have sed and awk, everything becomes text processing.

Consequently all I need is an editor to make me happy. I use Emacs, which becomes a whole “working environment,” but I could get by using vi with shell access (however much it hurts me to say that). Everything becomes editing when you have the idea that to use a computer is to write programs, and you know which tools can glue those programs together. Then all you need is a single command (e.g. “make”) to get the ball rolling. Given this perspective, learning new languages just becomes a matter of fitting those into an existing workflow. I generally think of programs as “input-output” and it’s okay if that input is a program, but it shouldn’t try to be its own environment and supersede Unix.

The language that fits in best with Unix philosophy and GNU Tools is C. Not only does C fit in, the GNU system is built around it, including a huge number of tools that make using C really, really easy. Automake, autoconf and the other auto-tools mean that all I have to do is write a little program, write a little Makefile.am, use autoscan and a few other things, and “make” builds me a program. Writing programs for simple number-crunching also means that most of the problems people associate with C are not my problems. I don’t have memory leaks in my programs, they just don’t happen. Therefore I don’t really need to care about having a language with garbage collection. Everybody’s screaming about making programs faster with parallel execution, but that’s for web-servers, databases that get called by web-servers, and other things that I’m not writing. C is extremely fast for number crunching, and we can make the kernel run parallel jobs using “make -j” or GNU Parallel. C is just fine.

Am I the only one out there interested in using something other than Fortran for number-crunching? Probably yes, but I can use C. I don’t need Haskell. I like the mathematical cleanliness of Haskell, but that doesn’t matter when I already know a functional language (Scheme), can already write bloody-fast numerical algorithms in C, and can run parallel jobs with Make. I read a lot of stuff about writing parallel programs and other features of supposedly “modern” languages, but they are almost always things important for writing web servers or GUIs, things that I’m not doing.


I’m still tempted to learn certain languages: here’s a run-down of why.


C++ is still tantalizing because so many people know it. In addition to that, it seems to have a very mature set of standard libraries. However, especially when I hear people say stuff like “Many C++ programmers write in C, but just don’t know it,” it seems still more unnecessary. C++ has a large community, GNU development tools, and seems like I’d have to change very little of how I do my work in order to learn it. All I would have to learn is the language.


D is an interesting language because it includes well-implemented features of some other language platforms, like garbage collection. D seems basically like C with some added on features, and the ability to extend its programming paradigms. I haven’t taken the steps to see what kind of development tools are available for D, so I haven’t given it the full evaluation yet. Unfortunately, it doesn’t seem to have a large enough user community to fit fully in with GNU yet, which is a critical factor.


The big thing Haskell has going for it is that Fedora has a full complement of development tools to form a Haskell environment. Haskell has just as huge a network of tools as Lisp (close enough to look that way), so that would make it easy to get going. I think the problems with Haskell are that it seems too difficult to get going with, it seeks to be its own environment (i.e. doesn’t fit in with my working environment), seems suited to doing other things than I would do with it, and I don’t need to learn it. I would really like to learn it, but all these things just add up to me saying “I don’t have the time.” That’s fewer words than all that other stuff I said.


I keep thinking I should learn Javascript. I feel like if I know Emacs Lisp, and I use Firefox as much as I use Emacs, I should know a scripting language for Firefox or be able to add the features that I need. However, all the learning materials for Javascript seem job-focused and doing stuff that I wouldn’t be interested in.

What Makes a Language Usable or Worth Learning?

This is a common question I see people discuss: most often I’ve seen it in “Common Lisp vs. Scheme” discussions common in Lisp forums. The question there seems directed at why Common Lisp has been so much more popular than Scheme. That’s a dubious premise, seeing that many people learn Scheme in college CS classes, at least that’s my impression (as I said, I’ve never taken such a class). The real premise of the question is “Why does Common Lisp have so many libraries, whereas Scheme makes you recreate format?” Paul Graham’s creation of Arc was driven by this contention: people say “If you want to actually get work done, use Common Lisp,” but Scheme is so cool, right? I have come to a different question which is “How does this language fit into my workflow?” This was also a critical part of choosing a Scheme implementation. There are tons of them, but they are all designed for slightly different purposes, or they are someone’s proof-of-concept compiler. Guile is a great example of the reasons I would put time into learning to use a particular language.

I find the relevant factors in choosing to spend time with a language are (a) fitting in with Unix workflow/mindset, (b) a good community (hopefully aligned with GNU), (c) libraries, utilities and functions that have the features I expect, (d) development and workflow tools and (e) good learning materials. I have found that certain languages or implementations fit all these features, and some fit some, but not others. The best is obviously C, which has all these qualities. Guile is the best Scheme implementation because it has all these qualities. Guile even integrates with C; I think my next big project will be C with Guile fully integrated. Python has a great community, but it’s quite distinct from the GNU community, the community I prefer. I’m less likely to find a fellow Unix-minded friend in the Python community. Haskell has good support on Fedora, but I haven’t found a good text for learning it. Pike looks thoroughly Unixy in its syntax, but its development materials, or even its interactive environment are not available in Fedora repositories. I’ve found the tools that work for me, and I suppose the best thing is to learn how to use them better.

Categories: Programming Tags: , , , , ,
  1. B
    January 30, 2011 at 21:23

    Try Ralph Griswold’s Icon programming language.


    • January 31, 2011 at 09:54

      Looks interesting! I’ve browsed the homepage and will try the tutorials. Thanks for reading.


  2. artur
    February 2, 2011 at 09:42

    ruby learn ruby cause its shiny, then use rails, use ruby with rails and on rails – best part rails never end. You can roam the rails all your life, a simpler life it would be.


    • February 2, 2011 at 10:00

      This seems weird, but my biggest gripe against Ruby is that the source code examples I’ve seen look really ugly:

      %$#@$%^*&^$@!#^$%$#%#@#bunchgrass.#@^%^#$%@#$!%$#%#quaker = zebulon
      exit 1;

      As opposed to Scheme:

      (define love beauty)
      (do ((me 0 (1+ i))
            ((orgasm?) (exit 0)))

      Clearly you can see the difference.

      Note: the above Scheme code is not portable.


  3. jhuni
    February 10, 2011 at 06:07

    C code wreaks of buffer overruns, core dumps, unsafe code, viruses, unintended side effects, unhygienic macros, mismatched headers, phantom return values, and so on. C++ doesn’t fix anything, it just layers on useless crap on top of C.

    On the other hand, since D breaks away from C it is free of the languages fundamental flaws and it has garbage collection, a feature which is a necessity for any user-land programs. Every user-land program should be written in a GC languages like D rather then in buffer-overrun languages like C and C++.

    If you already know Scheme you have no need to learn Haskell really. IMO, Haskell makes things enormously complicated when they needn’t be. On the other hand, Scheme is minimal, simple, and clean which is probably why it is used to teach students.

    If you learn JavaScript just remember that it is a scripting language, it should be used for small scripts, don’t try to write an entire desktop environment in it (which is what I spent much of 2009 trying to do).


    • February 10, 2011 at 12:05

      C code wreaks of buffer overruns, core dumps, unsafe code, viruses, unintended side effects, unhygienic macros, mismatched headers, phantom return values, and so on.

      And badly-written Perl looks like diarrhea, that doesn’t make the language itself bad. I will think more about learning D, but GNU compiler (and Autotools) support, portability, and standard libraries make more of a difference for the kind of programs I write — I don’t use a lot of the features of C that lead hastily-written programs to the problems you spoke of (yet).

      I agree with your assessment of Haskell; after reading for hours and still not finding how to index an array, I was pretty annoyed. Even Scheme has list-ref.

      Thanks for reading πŸ˜‰


  1. January 30, 2011 at 17:01
  2. January 30, 2011 at 23:48
  3. February 2, 2011 at 01:04
  4. February 3, 2011 at 04:39

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