Did Richard Stallman Invent the eBook?
Lately you’ve heard me say that my feelings toward laptops have changed. Since getting my new laptop, some of my feelings toward reading have changed as well. I love paper, and I love the look of printed letters, and well typeset text on the page. That won’t change. However, I noticed that most of the texts that I read (journal articles) I can read in online versions without missing much of the content. I’ve started exclusively reading current articles either online or in PDF form on my laptop and I’m glad to be conserving paper.
One thing that hasn’t changed — things that I’ve always read on my computer — are GNU manuals. GNU manuals are written in an ingenious format called TeXinfo which enables the author to produce appropriate output for several different ways of reading: PDF, HTML and the online info format, most easily read in Emacs. If you’re running GNU/Linux, you will find tons of manuals in this format by typing “info” into a terminal. Within Emacs, type “F1 h” (that’s press and release F1, then press and release ‘h’). Either way you should get a menu of topics, each covered by its own info manual.
Since deciding on Sunday that my programming goal should be better programming, rather than learning a new language, I started reading advanced topics in Unix/GNU programming: processes, pipes, IPC, etc. I was thinking “Man, I need to get that classic book Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment.” Unfortunately this book is HUGE, I wouldn’t carry it around with me, as reducing back strain is currently high on my agenda. It also dates from 1992 (around the time I first used Unix) and some things have changed since then. Most of the things the book is about have not changed, but most texts show their age in one way or another. Most Unix texts from this time look like casualties of the Unix wars, with more than half their content explaining incompatibilities between different version of Unix, and the pitfalls of writing portable programs.
So of course, I went for (what I thought was) the next best thing, something I already had and could carry around with me at no extra weight: the GNU C Library Manual (in the info menu, type “m” and then enter “libc” and hit Enter). I have been reading about the basics of IPC and processes for a while off and on, and there were things that I just didn’t get about them. I get them now, having read them in the Libc manual. For example, I didn’t understand that a child process and its parent process receive different return values from fork(); the Libc Manual spells this out so clearly I wonder why I didn’t think of it before. I didn’t get how the child process and parent process’ distinct code portions were triggered, but that was only because I hadn’t read the f’ing manual.
These manuals don’t read like terse manpages, they read like manuals that you would actually want to read. The Libc manual and the Emacs manual both repeatedly surprise me. Emacs users often joke about learning new “features” of Emacs that have actually existed for decades. Whenever I am frustrated with Emacs in some way, I’ll usually find a workaround, and then months later I’ll be reading the manual for some unrelated cause and find a solution to my problem. It was right there the whole time! You can imagine how empowering reading these manuals is.
The weird thing is that although I’ve repeatedly had this experience with GNU Manuals, they aren’t the first thing that I go to. I need to change that habit. We often treat reference materials as though we shouldn’t sit and read them, we should instead browse through them until we find what we need and then put them away. That’s what manpages are for. GNU Manuals are different. GNU Manuals actually tell you what’s going on and what to do: they are great for beginning programmers. I’m not going to waste my time going to the library; I’m going to read the Libc Manual.
eBooks, rms and DRM
Recently ebooks outsold paperbacks on Amazon.com. People may be treating this as the final sign that the death of paper is coming, but I don’t, for one considering that Amazon has been set up as an ebook store from the very beginning, i.e. they’re on the friggin’ web — it’s obvious they would try to compete by delivering their content as quickly and conveniently as possible. I’ve always seen it as a goal of theirs, although I think back in the 90s most of us thought ebooks would just be webpages, rather than something you’d actually carry around, i.e. we thought they would be different enough from regular books to combat the problems of regular books.
Amazon however has a different idea: they and their competitors would like you to think of ebooks as the same as regular books, just lighter weight, and easier to pay for. Their ridiculous idea of “e-lending” is so stupidly backward that I laughed out loud when I heard of it:
They have managed to recreate, in the palm of a reader’s hand, the thrill of tracking down a call number deep in the library stacks only to find its spot occupied by empty space. With a clever arrangement of bytes, they have enabled users to experience the equivalent of being without their books while their friends’ dogs chew on them. Maybe if we’re lucky, next they’ll implement the feature that allows two electronic pages to be stuck together as if by gum, or that translates coffee spilled on the screen into equivalent damage to the digital pages.–John Sullivan, Lending: A solved problem
They’ve done this with DRM or “Digital Restrictions Management.” Its practitioners call it “Digital Rights Management,” which I think is sinister enough: do you want your rights digitally managed? They’ve managed to make ebooks just as problematic as paper books, and why?
The question of their motives becomes so much clearer when we consider that not only did Richard Stallman create great free books about computing, like the Emacs Manual and the GNU Libc manual, he also helped create the best ebook reader out there (info), and all with the goal that it will facilitate user freedom. The choice is yours: do you want ebooks to be as inconvenient as regular books? Or would you rather have convenient, indexed, hyperlinked text written by people who care about you and your freedom? The choice is clear to me.
Some Further Reading
The history is about as interesting as the books themselves. Some people think that ebooks (or the concept) is new, just as they think about tablet computers and touch screens. Both touch screens and “ebooks” are about as old as computing itself. If you’re skeptical about that, think of how simple an idea it is: many, many books that you can carry around in your pocket at no additional weight. “Hey let’s use computers,” is a pretty simple solution. Computers were almost built for the task. The only new idea is making ebooks as inconvenient as paper books. I’m reminded of Douglas Adams‘ explanation that if a hitch-hiker wanted to carry a paper copy of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (a text that bears a strange resemblance to Wikipedia), he would have to carry several enormous buildings with him.